Thursday, May 21, 2020

Article Review Song, Confession, and Criminality Trial...

The first article up for review, Alexander Fisher’s â€Å"Song, Confession, and Criminality: Trial Records as Sources for Popular Musical Culture in Early Modern Europe,† is extremely thorough and detailed. After a lengthy introduction, the thesis is finally stated. His goal with this article is to gain an understanding of popular music in early-modern Europe through trial records of three cases of people being accused of anti-Catholic sentiment. He lists his methodology after this, planning to comb through their individual case files which includes documents on the interrogation questions used and other tactics that were employed (i.e. torture). Fisher then gives us his plan for the conclusion, in which he says he will offer some unifying†¦show more content†¦Fisher gives us the Fragstà ¼ck as promised and the reveals to us that Schà ¤dlin was released a day after his confession due to his honesty. Fisher then dives into analysis of both text and music to gi ve us an understanding of why this song was punishable by law and why it was popular among Schà ¤dlin’s protestant peers at the time. Fisher builds his case backwards (in my opinion) but it works beautifully. First, he gives us Psalm 124 from the Bible, which was set to music by two prominent early Protestant composers, Johann Walter and Justus Jonas. Fisher draws connections in both text and technical set up between the three to give the reader an understanding of the strong political imagery employed by Schà ¤dlin. He mentions specific changes Schà ¤dlin to draw out anger in the Church, including an implication that the Catholics â€Å"clamor for his blood† (Dr. Mà ¼ller being the subject given to us in the introduction). Fisher also highlights Schà ¤dlin’s connection between local government and ancient Roman tyranny. Fisher ends this section of his article by focusing on the link between the Justus Jonas setting of the Psalm and Schà ¤dlin’s alt ered version, citing this as a reason for its popularity among dissenting Protestants at the time and as a reason the local governments took such offense to the song. Next, Fisher moves on to The Case of Jonas Losch. He starts out with a little historical background on Losch, including the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Walter Whitman Essay - 2069 Words

All Alone nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Walter Whitman was an American poet of the 1800’s. Walt was arguably one of America’s influential and innovative poets of his time. Whitman began work as a printer and journalist in the New York City area. He wrote articles on politics, civics, and the arts. During the Civil War, Whitman was a volunteer assistant in the military hospitals in Washington, D.C. After the war, he worked in several government departments until he suffered a stroke in 1873. He spent the rest of his life in Camden, N.J., where he continues to write poems and articles. Leaves of Grass, a book of poems Whitman began in 1848 was so unusual at the time that no publisher would publish it. In 1855, he published it†¦show more content†¦It is difficult to challenge the purity and spirituality of the feelings Whitman and Doyle had for each other. Many cant figure out what was between them. â€Å"There can be no doubt that these feelings transcend those usual to friends or companions of the same sex† (Allen 25). Whitman was a homosexual and many of his poems relate to manly love. â€Å"To the serious reader of Calamus, the ‘manly love’ that recurs both as a term and as an idea is of such genuine poetic complexity as to render it a good deal more than ‘abnormal’ and considerably less than ‘deficient’†(Canby 124). The poems also show the friendship of men and women through his life.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Calamus is a section that has changed along with the revisions of the book. The poems came and gone with how Walt felt each poem held up in each section. â€Å" No section in Leaves of Grass has received so much close attention and been the center of so much discussion and controversy as Calamus† (Bliss 288). Whitman’s own saintlike, spiritual life shows as proof that the poems could not be unwholesome. â€Å"William Sloane Kennedy calls Calamus, â€Å"Whitman’s beautiful democratic poems of friendship† (Bliss 288). The purity, innocence, and spirituality of the Calamus concept cannot be missed. The idea in not original with Whitman. As he states, â€Å" the Calamus idea was expressed by all mankind’s saviors and has frequently beenShow MoreRelatedWalter Whitman1003 Words   |  5 PagesWalter Whitman â€Å"I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey-work of the stars† (Whitman 41). Walter Whitman, also known as Walt Whitman, was born on May 31, 1819, in Long Island, New York, to Walter Whitman and Louisa Van Velsor Whitman. When he was twelve, Walt and his family settled in Brooklyn, up to then his family had lived in a dozen different places (Conarroe 4). Walt worked in many different positions; to some he was even viewed as a drifter. Walt was many different things;Read MoreWalter Whitman Research Paper Outline Draft538 Words   |  3 PagesThesis: People who read about Walter Whitman tend to say that he had a good life until his mother pass and his book Leaves of Grass in a book about his life and what he went through. Introduction: Walt Whitman was an American poet from West Hills, Long Island New York. He wrote plenty of poems for the New York Times Journal newspaper also known for the famous book Leaves of Grass that had nine editions and is more than one book. The book Leaves of Grass was published in 1888 when he was finallyRead MoreLeaves Of Grass By Walt Whitman915 Words   |  4 PagesLeaves on Grass is collection of poems written by an American poet named Walt Whitman. The first edition was published in 1855 but, Whitman spent most of his professional life writing and rewriting Leaves of Grass, until his death in 1892 at the age of 72. Even though during the time his work was considered immoral later people began to realize the beauty behind his poems and started to appreciate the man who wrote them.Whitman s Leaves of Grass is iconic in American poetry because of the beautyRead MoreDemocratic Individualism in Walt Whitman Poetry1663 Words   |  7 PagesWhitman’s Poetry Walt Whitman will remain as a well-known, superb poet. Clarence Brown stated, the words of someone speaking on Walt Whitman, â€Å"He is the only one of the conventionally recognized American poets who is worth reading† (37). Walt Whitman is a poet that writes with purpose. His poetry seems to attempt to teach the more desirable behavior and traits for Americans. It depicts the ideal American democrat, peace maker, and a well-rounded person, in general. Not that Walt Whitman is only about democracyRead MoreWalt Whitman s Life And Accomplishments1731 Words   |  7 PagesNikuze Mr. Taylor Walt Whitman December 3 2014 Walt Whitman Walt Whitman is an inspiration to many, one can not really understand America with out him. Walt Whitman was born on May 31, 1819. He had nine siblings including him, he was also the son of Walter Whitman who was a house builder and Louisa van veils or was his mother. They lived in Brooklyn and Long Island in the 1820s and the 1830s. When Whitman turned twelve years old heRead MoreWalt Whitmans Influences1597 Words   |  7 PagesThere have been many influential writers that left their own unique mark on American history; one in particular that has made a significant impact is Walt Whitman. His writing styles evoke different nontraditional methods that did not coincide with the traditions of more â€Å"mainstream† American writers. He did this by establishing a pattern that utilized a lot of free verse compared to the more natural rhyme of poems, and also by describing his subject with emphasis to make the story as real as possibleRead MoreEssay about Walt Whitman744 Words   |  3 Pages During the time period that Walter Whitman lived, there were many controversial things happening to the American people as a whole. One of the most strenuous upon society at the time was the Civil War. The Civil War created many problems in the lives of most Americans during this time period. This war also prompted, and inspired Walt to create many of his historical works of art. The war was raging in both the north and the south during Whitmans golden era of his writing. In the North, the economyRead MoreWalt Whitman s Life That Changed The Way Of Life1690 Words   |  7 Pages Corey Haldiman Goulette Research Paper Walt Whitman Walt used creativity, personal experiences and different ideas in his writing. He moved various times through his childhood, and that may have moved his personality to become slightly neurotic. He has done a lot of things in his life that has changed the way that future poets will write. Walt Whitman entered this world on May thirty-first, eighteen-nineteen in West Hills, New York. He was the second son among nine other children inRead MoreAnalysis Of Frances Willard And Walt Whitman Essay1276 Words   |  6 PagesFrances Willard and Walt Whitman are two significant nineteenth century American figures. Although Willard and Whitman are famous for different reasons, they do have one characteristic in common: they have both been accused of being homosexuals. However, most people do not know this because it is not put in history textbooks or taught in the classroom, for good reason. Public school students should not learn about Willard and Whitman’s homosexuality through thei r textbooks and teachers because itRead More Essay on Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson970 Words   |  4 Pages Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson nbsp; In America’s history, there have been so many writers, but only few are known for changing the course of American literature.nbsp; Two writers that fit this description are Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman.nbsp; These two poets have different styles of writing but possess the same themes from the social environment that they are surrounded in.nbsp; The poetry reflects these poets’ personality and their own style of writing.nbsp; Whitman had an outgoing

The Just Not Caring Essay Free Essays

An example of violence against women Imagine the horror of being forcefully tied down, drenching In kerosene oil and being set on fire alive. It would not be a surprise If the mere thought of It Is already disturbing to you. How much more so would it be that this bitter fate is truly faced by many married women in India not at the hands of some psychos or strangers, but by their own so-called beloved husbands and or in-laws? A young woman is either being burnt alive, beaten to death or being forced to commit suicide at someplace in India, almost every four hours for not being able to provide the demand of dowries. We will write a custom essay sample on The Just Not Caring Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Stone) The word dowry In the ordinary sense means properties or resources that are given to the bridegroom and his family at the time of marriage from the bride’s family for accepting her to their home permanently. Dowry is, therefore, a compensatory payment to the family which agrees to shelter her hypothetically for the rest of her life. (Madam). â€Å"The nature of property may be movable or immovable. Movable property generally consists of cash, clothes, furniture, ornaments, cycle or car and many other articles and Immovable property Includes land, house and shop or actors, etc. â€Å"(Hookah, 3) Historically, the dowry was referred as gift given voluntarily and it was restricted only to the Brahmins as the symbol of the highest caste. Today the dowry often refers to expensive material objects demand by the bridegroom’s family as opposed to voluntarily given and it is unfortunately becoming customary across many deferent castes and social groups. Stone) Although dowry is possibly the single largest cause of bride burning as well as other forms of domestic violence against women; the Inequality between genders, an Increase In consumerism and he growing greed of balancing the social status with material objects also serves to be the motivations in committing the crime of bride burning. Oil) In India, a daughter is often neither valued nor welcomed by her biological family d ue to the severe financial weight of the dowry expectation. In fact, girls are rejected prior to their birth. Pillar, indicates that detection of a fetus using amniocentesis test have escalated throughout the country and the fetus carrying XX chromosomes are often aborted because the ultimate financial burden of a woman makes a female infant highly unwanted. Rude) The male preference over female Is also due to the custom of husband’s family taking in the bride and thus daughters are taken as temporary visitors in their own home. Even in the matter of upbringing, son’s happiness and success are considered more important because in return sons bear the responsibility of supporting their parents at the time of old age. Over time, this unequal treatment and abandonment faced by many women from a very young age forces them to view themselves as a minority which then ultimately shatters their confidence and self-worthiness into pieces. This explains why many newly-wed women prefer to stay mute even when they experience brutality or dowry -related violence since they fear or lack the confidence to gear up enough courage in an alien house hold to fight back or report the violence when the dowry obligations are unmet. According to Rude, some even choose suicide as an escape from the brutality of their situation and to spare their parents the humiliation of not being able to India, a total of 2. 276 female suicides due to dowry disputes were reported in 2006 that is six a day on an average, while the figure was 2,305 in 2005. On an average India loses one India woman every four hours over a dowry dispute, as per official data, despite a series of laws to empower them. (Dowry) The ongoing reality of dowry- related violence is an example of what can happen when women are treated as property. Hookah points out homicidal burning to be a common method used to murder a wife by the husband and in-law in order to bring forth excuses to explain the incident. The husband or in-law often reports the incident to the police as â€Å"a stove burst†, an accidental burn that took place while the woman was cooking on a rimes stove. Or the report may state that my wife’s dress usually it’s a traditionally dress called â€Å"share† caught on fire while she was cooking on a wood burning stove. In case, if the husband or in-law fails to prove the event based upon the evidence, they simply report the death as being one of the suicides. A familiar claim is that the victim burnt herself to death by pouring paraffin oil on her clothes and body and setting herself alight. † (Dowry) Due to lack of evidence, the guilty husband and in-law often escapes even after committing atrocious crimes and they are soon in the arraign business again looking for a new bride with perhaps an even handsomer dowry. Stone) These shocking made-up incidents are linked to the custom of the dowry system that has turned the very concept of marriage–a pure attachment between a husband and a wife–into a transaction, with no value placed whatsoever on the bride or the relationship of the husband and wife. â€Å"For this man or his family woman becomes the ticket to his shortcut richness through the system of dowry. † The groom side of the family often uses the prospect of a sonâ⠂¬â„¢s marriage to full fill all the series in terms of articles that they cannot afford on their own. Women are increasingly seen as commodities and are vulnerable to being treated as replaceable objects because when the flow of dowry ends, they are in a shaky position that can lead to disapproval, cruelty, and finally, dowry-murder. â€Å"The driving force behind this process is the growth of the cash-based economy, which has commercialese dowry and further lowered the status of women despite new laws and educational opportunities designed to assist them. Although a dowry system is illegal in India, it entities to flourish putting lives of many women in danger simply because there is no limitation to human greed. Nowadays dowry is regarded, by those who demand it, as reflection of the social status of the bridegroom’s family.. Thus, the more eligible the bridegroom is in terms of social standing, the wealth, the educational and career- related achievements, and so forth the larger the dowry that his family has the right to demand and receive. These marriages built upon greed–and not upon love, as it should be–brings only disaster in which only women face. The desire for more never ends once the person has been bitten by dowry bite and as a result when the bride’s family cannot pay the amount commanded by the in-laws, the bride is often then burned alive as a consequence. Furthermore, the emergence of consumerism has made it attractive for prospective bridegrooms and their families to use the dowry as a means of enriching themselves at the time of marriage by demanding expensive presents from the parents of the prospective bride. The desire for continuing to benefit materially from the parents of the bride can take the form of pressuring the parents of young women do not hesitate to the evil custom of dowry. Since it has become very problematic for family with a daughter who is highly educated to find an eligible educated groom due to the pressure that a girl is required to marry a husband above her in terms of education. And it is considered a shameful act to marry a man with a less education. Thus, the daughters’ parents are ready to pay a handsome amount of dowry. Geraldine Forbes, and other scholars also point out that, in relatively recent times, rising consumerism and the increasing trend to equate social status with material objects has made it attractive for prospective bridegrooms ND their families to use the dowry as a means of enriching themselves at the time of marriage by demanding expensive presents from the parents of the prospective bride. The desire for continuing to benefit materially from the parents of the bride can take the form of pressuring the bride and her family for more dowries even after marriage. (G. Forbes) To halt the practice of bride burning, a change in the perception of women’s status is essential. It can be brought about by increase in the education and the equal opportunities for women. The hard earned money saved up or dowries should rather be invested in the betterment of their daughters’ future so that they can become and remain economically independent from their husbands or their natal families. In addition shelter homes should be constructed for victims of dowry-related violence since many women are dependent to their husbands and have no place to go. Further more, the media should use it’ power to publicize the problems caused by dowry and dowry-related crimes. I. E. Asia Intel L. 277 (2008) Dowry Deaths (bride burning) in India and Abutment of Suicide: A Socio-Legal Appraisal; Madman, Unaligned How to cite The Just Not Caring Essay, Essays

Sunday, April 26, 2020

women in egypt Essay Example For Students

women in egypt Essay Women in the Hellenistic world Women in the Hellenistic World Womens lives were improved and expanded in the Hellenistic age more so than at any other time prior Greek history. Papyri from Egypt and Coele-Syria have led to the discovery of documents on marriage contracts, inscriptions of philanthropy, and the daily lives of the women in that period. The Hellenistic woman changed in many ways. She became more educated, more cultured, and she received domestic freedom and her new legal and occupational advancements and a whole other myriad of news liberations. The ideal of the Classical obedient Greek wife was turned upside down. We will write a custom essay on women in egypt specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now She no longer had to be escorted to places outside her home and to issue legal documents. She also could now have contracts drawn up to secure her position in a marriage contracts that would cover adultery and her right to divorce. Before the Hellenistic age Greek wives were looked down upon. They were seen as a means to produce kin, take care of the domestic duties, and be subordinate to their husbands. In a speech by King Eteocles in 467 BCE to some Theban women who have thrown themselves to his feet in a desperate attempt to lift his besiegement of Thebes, he says: I ask you, you intolerable creatures, if you think that your behavior will be helpful to the state and will bring salvation, or support the army that is besieged, if you fall on the statues of the gods who protect the state, and wail and scream to the disgust of sensible people? (Lefkowitz and Fant, 28) He uses the term intolerable creatures to characterize these women. He here practices the common Greco-chauvinistic idea of male dominance over female. He even goes as far as reducing them to a less than human state by using the word creatures. He goes on to say to the Thebans: I would not choose to live with the female sex either in bad times nor during a welcome peace The outside is a mans concern a woman should not consider it; she should stay inside and not cause damage. Have you heard me or not? Or am I talking to a deaf woman? (Lefkowitz and Fant, 28) This was furthered by Euripides in the Worthlessness of Women, 428 BCE. Euripides went beyond Eteocles. He said: I hate clever women. I dont want a woman in my house thinking more than a woman ought to think (Lefkowitz and Fant, 29). Euripides here degrades women as was the custom of Greek men of that time. Too often did men speak of these ideals and this perpetuated the polarization of male to female relationships But not all women were demonized. On an epitaph there is inscribed: This dust hides Archedice, daughter of Hippias, the most important man in Greece in his day. But though her father, husband, brothers, and children were tyrants, her mind was never carried away into arrogance. (Lefkowitz and Fant, 16) This inscription from the 5th century BCE shows how some women were remembered for good deeds done and not just their duties as homemakers. It also recognized the humane side of the Classical Greek woman. Philosophers and philosophies were developed in the Hellenistic period that allowed women to join schools of thought that expanded their freedom. Education became available for an array of Greek women in this time. A little before the Hellenistic age came to be, the ideas of the loosening of social constructs for women were taking place that led to the foundation of other schools of thought such as that of Epicureanism and Cynicism. But these ideas came from a couple of the Classical philosophers. One example of this is a discussion between Plato and Glaucon. The topic of interest to these men was that of the education of women. The point that was made was that since there are only a couple of distinctions between men and women, i.e. physical attributes and things like pot making and bread making although really only social constructs that forced women to be engaged in these services day in and day out that would have made them better then men at those said duties that men arent superior to women on the intellectual plane and better able to perform those duties therein. They thought primarily because women, with the same education as men, can perform and execute those tasks just as proficiently as men can. But in contrast to this is Platos student Aristotle. Who wrote why freedmen (Greek citizens) should rule slaves. He stated: The freeman rules over the slave after another manner that in which the male rules over the female, or the man over the child; although the parts of the soul are present in all of them, they are present in different degrees. For the slave has no deliberative faculty to all; the woman has, but it is without authority, and the child has, but it is immature. (Lefkowitz and Fant, 39) Here he shows that women have the ability to reason and think but that they lack the authority that the man does. This leaves her out of making decisions such as that of a man would make outside the house; being in the polis or in an army. But later, those two schools of thought believed that women did have those faculties and the authority and inducted them into their schools Epicureanism and Cynicism. Both of these schools of thought were founded in or about the Hellenistic period but both taking root and expanding their thoughts throughout the Hellenistic world therein at the least. One famous female Cynic was one by the name of Hipparchia, the wife of Crates. Who appeared in public and went to dinner parties, and was proud to have spent time in education rather than working at the loom. (Pomeroy, 132) She stood out among her peers as an independent woman without the need for a chaperone when one was required to have a chaperone. A Classical Greek institution that required Greek women to have at all times when they leave the house a male escort presumably a family member. .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .postImageUrl , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:hover , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:visited , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:active { border:0!important; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:active , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Genocide in East Timor Essay Lefkowitz and Fant touch on this a little more. They site an example of papyri that was discovered that gave a short narrative of two women who go out without escorts. Gorgo, a housewife who visits her friend Praxinoa on the day of the festival of Adonis in Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE makes small talk before going to the house of the king, rich Ptolemy. Theyre excited because the queen has done a beautiful job of decorating the palace a story about seemingly nothing. But really of common life and housewives being allowed out of the domestic sphere and able to visit their friends and go to public places without escorts. Another improvement in the lives of Hellenistic women that they enjoyed was that of a heightened amount of legal rights. One of these and most prominent is that of the right for women to not need an escort or chaperone to places or in legal matters. A guardian was required in the legal field when a Greek woman made a public declaration or incurred a contractual obligation concerning persons or property. This is most notable in the distinction between the women in mainland Greece and those of Egypt. In the Hellenized world women were now allowed to leave the house and do the projects that the slaves would do such as buying food and other commodities. But womens emancipation in the legal realm reached further than this. Women now were able to construct marriage contracts that ensured a myriad of legal binding conditions. One case is that of a marriage contract between a man and a women in Egypt Heraclides of Temnos and Demetria, respectively that ensured that if Heraclides brings home another woman or begets a child with another woman or indulges in fraudulent machinations against Demetria and she proves it in front of three men that they both know and have picked he shall have to return the dowry of 1000 drachmas and pay another 1000 drachmas in fines of his own to her. Also, this contract was legally binding anywhere that those two shall have moved. This means that because of the time where travel among the Hellenistic kingdoms was common practice and each place had its own laws contracts needed to constructed as to be able to circulate in and out of each kingdom. In a rare case a woman was awarded a position as a magistrate. A one Phile of Priene. She became the first woman to construct a reservoir and an aqueduct. Her position as a magistrate was awarded to her probably because she contributed to the public works out of her private funds. But this shows that women were capable to function on a legal level, as was the case here. The next new rights of women in this period come from the arena of the new found domestic and civic freedoms. This is the new institution of educating women which I have already touched upon in the discussion between Plato and Glaucon. But I shall elaborate in more detail. A couple of examples of womens literacy come from two places; poetry and the ability to sign ones own marriage contract. We know of female poets in Classical Greece but now in Egypt with the new amounts of papyri womens works remained intact as proof of their literacy. But the important part is that of women being able to sign their marriage contracts. Education became available to women in this period as well. Hipparchia, one of the first female Cynical philosophers even received an education based on the curriculum of a Greek boy. She received an education in rudimentary mathematics, music, literature, and of physical education. The aspect of women even being allowed to be involved in physical education is a radically new ideal. This because Athletics were an essential part of the male curriculum that was opened to women in the Hellenistic period precisely because the Classical ideal no longer prevailed.(Pomeroy, 137) This now allowed women to enter gymnasiums and exercise nude in the close proximity to men although this happened quite rarely. The next aspect of the liberation of Hellenistic women is that of the strength and cleverness of the royal women. Three of these women come to the table when considering who they are; Alexanders mother, Bernice II and Cleopatra VII. All three of these women used their cunning and influence to get what they wanted. With Alexanders mother she had to compete with other women to get her son into position to take the throne after Philip IIs death. As Pomeroy put it: Many Macedonian kings indulged in both formal and informal polygamy, and because they often chose not to confer most-favored status on one of their wives thereby making clear as well which of their sons was the designated successor to the throne they fostered a climate of intrigue and struggle for power within their courts which could end in their own death at the hands of a power-hungry mother plotting of behalf of her son. (Pomeroy, 121) This caused Alexanders mother to have to conspire against the other women in Philips court and lie and deceive the king himself to put Alexander where she wanted him. Bernice II was the wife of Ptolemy III. She exercised real political power and who left her mark on poetry and religion. She had access to a large fortune, which she spent on perfume of roses and racehorses (traditionally a male hobby). Her income was from the shipping in her city of Cyrene. She owned ships that transported grain on the Nile, which also added to her wealth. Her power came not from the trickery that she had to perform, but from her economic situation. She came to the table with wealth and didnt have to fight to be able to ensure her kin to the throne. But Cleopatra VII was the most famous. Cleopatra inherited the throne at seventeen with her brother Ptolemy XVII, then ten. Pomeroy states on Cleopatra: the phenomenon of Cleopatra must be set firmly in the context of Ptolemaic queens, shrewd, able and ambitious. .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .postImageUrl , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:hover , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:visited , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:active { border:0!important; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:active , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Becoming Hitler Essay She was not a courtesan, an exotic plaything for Roman generals. Rather, Cleopatras liaisons with the Romans must be considered to have been, from her viewpoint, legitimate dynastic alliances with promises of the greatest possible success and profit to the queen and to Egypt. (Pomeroy, 124) She used Caesar to ensure the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt even under Roman control. She even had a son with Caesar and traveled to Rome to stay as a courtesan until his assassination. The final aspect of female Hellenized liberation was represented in their news occupations. There are four categories of these occupations; arts and literature, practical jobs, medicinal jobs and prostitution. The first of these, arts and literature involved some of the following; dancers, musicians, painters and poets. The first three showing the depth of Classical Greek arts transposing into the Hellenized world. But the latter, the poets, show the literacy of the occupational women that lived in the Hellenistic period. The next group, the practical jobs, show how women are now able to come out of the house and find applications of their capabilities in the world. Some of these jobs included; weavers, pot makers, launders, grocers and bar-maids. All that these show is an ability to prove womens ability to function outside of the domestic sphere. This contradicts the ideals of Aristotle that were stated earlier. Although most of these jobs just included an extension of their domestic duties as they were in Classical Greece, they did show an integration among the Hellenistic women into the work force of that time a distinction between those said women and those of Classical Greece. The third category of occupations among Hellenistic women is that of the medical field. While most men of that time stayed with the healing of diseases most women in the medical field were midwives and wet-nurses. They handled such applications as the functions of menstruation, childbirth, nursing and menopause. The fourth category is that of the prostitute. The distinction between primarily two types of prostitutes should be made. The first is that of the freed womans and the second is that of the exposed or enslaved womans. Pomeroy stated that one of the main reasons for why women were exposed and forced into enslaved prostitution was a result of the requirement of the family of that girl to pay a dowry to her husband. For lower class families this could have been devastating, especially if there was more than one daughter. But prostitution could be very rewarding. There were even recorded cases when prostitutes had to pay higher taxes when traveling from one country to the next. It was the case that these women had to pay more not because of moral reasons but simply because they could afford to do so. The new Greek woman the newly Hellenized liberations left her Classical Greek heritage behind. But this is so only in the new spectrum of her rights in the new world. Never did she leave her Greek heritage behind in the aspect of being Greek. She was still Greek in the ethnic sense but not in the ideal sense. She brought a whole new definition onto the women of the Hellenized world. She raged against the Classical Greek ideal of what a women should be as Aristotle saw it, a obedient women working on the domestic sphere being devoid of any intellectual prowess and cleverness and barely better than a slave. But Plato saw, as the Epicureans and the Cynics did some time later, that women were just as capable at thinking intellectually and having the faculties to compete in something like the political sphere. She also acquired a myriad of legal rights. With her literacy came an ability to sign marriage contrasts which helped secure her rights in a marriage and dull her exploitation. It also allowed her to no longer need an escort in such matters that would have been needed in Classical Greece. She could in some places have become a magistrate because of her economic status as was the case with Phile of Priene. Her education allowed to become more literate, become better founded in mathematics, have a knowledge of ancient Greek literature and even participate in the gymnasiums that allowed her to join the ranks of the educated class in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. The royal women in this time also experienced as new found power. Alexanders mother biding and successfully instituting her son into position to the throne. Bernice II found that her economic status could carry her a long way. Leaving marks on the arts and poetry especially. Cleopatra VII found that her beauty and cleverness could help to secure the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt for years. She even had a child with the famous Roman emperor Caesar. Showing her strength and intelligence in the political sphere as well. And the occupations of Greek women in this time were expanded. Now women could leave the house and pursue other jobs of interest. And at least earn an income on her own. Women in the Hellenistic age were allowed to enter all of the above fields. They became smarter, legally freer and economically stronger. But what was the real zeal that made these ideas reality? In a quote form Fantham it is made clear: In the Classical period, respectable women at least those of Athens had been able to look forward to only two journeys: the first from their fathers house to heir husbands, the next from their husbands house to the grave. But in the Hellenistic period both women and men migrated to the newly conquered territories and forged new lives for themselves in the frontier outpost of Hellenism. (Fantham, 140) A rebellion against the classic ideal of the Greek woman became inevitable.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Martin The Warrior Essays - Martin The Warrior, Redwall, Free Essays

Martin The Warrior Essays - Martin The Warrior, Redwall, Free Essays Martin The Warrior Martin In a time of danger A time of hunger The mouse was a stranger The mouse was strong He showed the cats With help from some bats How to behave He showed his pain, anger, and strife The creatures were thankful As a matter of fact He was honored for not only a life But for many years to come The novel, Martin the Warrior by Brian Jacques, is a book about a young mouse warrior named Martin, son of Luke the Warrior, a mouse that fought sea rats, One day, after the murder of most of his tribe (including his wife), Luke set sail to have his revenge against Vilu Daskar, the stoat pirate responsible for the massacre. Before he left, he gave Martin his sword, which had been handed down through their family since Luke's own grandsire lived. This book is about how Martin travels through a land full of moles, squirrels, and other woodland creatures which talk and walk upright. Martin goes around meeting creatures from all different lands and asks them to join his army to fight a tyrant who is keeping slaves in his fort, Marshank. The plot of this book is how Martin and his friends fight the tyrant, Badrang, to free slaves. The main idea of the book is how and why Martin and his army fight the tyrant. When Martin was captured as a slave for Badrang the Tyrant, he was furious. Not only did the evil rat steal his father's sword, he beat and mistreated all of the slaves horribly! Devising a plan, Martin frees himself and two of his friends from the Marshank, the slave camp: Brome the mouse and Felldoh the squirrel. Brome's sister, Laterose (Rose for short) and her companion Grumm the mole all set out with Martin and his friends to go get help from their hometown of Noonvale. Unfortunately, due to the sea's conditions, Martin, Rose, and Grumm get separated from Brome and Felldoh. The two strings of the story carry on and tie together at the end: Martin's group eventually reaches Noonvale, where he returns to Badrang to get his revenge, and Brome and Felldoh join the Rambling Rosehip Players, a bunch of happy-go-lucky animals that made the hardships less hard, and also get to the slave camp. The ending is tragic, and whenever I read it I get depressed. Martin, in the end, retrieves his sword from Badrang, and succeeds in killing him, but Rose, who he has become very much attached to, tries to help Martin in killing Badrang, but only ends up getting killed by him herself. Also, Felldoh died toward the end he had fought Badrang one-on-one but the lousy cheater called his army to help him. Felldoh, being a great warrior, killed many of Badrang's men but did not kill Badrang himself. Brome still lived, but found he did not like war, so he became a healer. Some of the characters that Martin encountered along his travels changed from being his enemies to being his allies. The creatures changed when Martin was off to go fight the tyrant and when he and his friends asked them to which to join fight the tyrant so he could not capture any more creatures for his slaves and makes his horde any more powerful. Sometimes it did not seem believable because of how they turned from enemies to allies instantly and why they joined without even knowing who Badrang the tyrant was. I felt like I had a similar relationship when Martin was leading his army into battle. I have this feeling when Im a captain of my basketball team and I have the partial responsibility of leading them to victory or defeat. I thought that the best scene in the book was when Martins army attacked the tyrants fort for the second time. It reminds me about whenever I lead or am a part of an activity of some sort, like basketball or tennis. I think that the title, Martin the Warrior, is fitting because its simple and it tells what the book is about. I liked the authors style of telling what was going on in the book and how he described it. He

Monday, March 2, 2020

Definition and Examples of the Bandwagon Fallacy

Definition and Examples of the Bandwagon Fallacy Bandwagon is a  fallacy based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid: that is, everyone believes it, so you should too. It is also called an appeal to popularity, the authority of the many, and argumentum ad populum  (Latin for appeal to the people).  Argumentum  ad populum proves only that a belief is popular, not that its true. The fallacy occurs, says Alex Michalos in  Principles of Logic, when the appeal is offered in place of a convincing argument for the view in question. Examples Carling Lager, Britains Number One Lager (advertising slogan)The Steak Escape. Americas Favorite Cheesesteak (advertising slogan)[Margaret] Mitchell enhanced the GWTW [Gone With the Wind] mystique by never publishing another novel. But who would be so churlish as to want more? Read it. Ten million (and counting) Americans cant be wrong, can they? (John Sutherland, How to be Well Read. Random House, 2014) Hasty Conclusions Appeals to popularity are basically hasty conclusion fallacies. The data concerning the popularity of the belief are simply not sufficient to warrant accepting the belief. The logical error in an appeal to popularity lies in its inflating the value of popularity as evidence. (James Freeman [1995), quoted by Douglas Walton in  Appeal to Popular Opinion. Penn State Press, 1999) Majority Rules The majority opinion is valid most of the time. Most people believe that tigers do not make good household pets and that toddlers shouldnt drive...Nonetheless, there are times when the majority opinion is not valid, and following the majority will set one off track. There was a time when everyone believed the world was flat and a more recent time when the majority condoned slavery. As we gather new information and our cultural values change, so too does the majority opinion. Therefore, even though the majority is often right, the fluctuation of the majority opinion implies that a logically valid conclusion cannot be based on the majority alone. Thus, even if the majority of the country did support going to war with Iraq, the majority opinion is not sufficient for determining whether the decision was correct. (Robert J. Sternberg, Henry L. Roediger, and Diane F. Halpern, Critical Thinking in Psychology, Cambridge University Press, 2007) "Everyone's Doing It" The fact that Everyones doing it is frequently appealed to as a reason why people feel morally justified in acting in less than ideal ways. This is particularly true in business matters, where competitive pressures often conspire to make perfectly upright conduct seem difficult if not impossible. The Everyones doing it claim usually arises when we encounter a more or less prevalent form of behavior that is morally undesirable because it involves a practice that, on balance, causes harm people would like to avoid. Although it is rare that literally everyone else is engaged in this behavior, the Everyones doing it claim is meaningfully made whenever a practice is widespread enough to make ones own forbearing from this conduct seem pointless or needlessly self-destructive. (Ronald M Green, When Is Everybodys Doing It a Moral Justification? ​Moral Issues in Business, 13th ed., edited by William H Shaw and Vincent Barry, Cengage, 2016)​ Presidents and Polls As George Stephanopoulos wrote in his memoir, Mr. [Dick] Morris lived by a 60 percent rule: If 6 out of 10 Americans were in favor of something, Bill Clinton had to be, too... The nadir of Bill Clintons presidency was when he asked Dick Morris to poll on whether he should tell the truth about Monica Lewinsky. But by that point he had already turned the ideal of the presidency upside down, letting arithmetic trump integrity as he painted his policies, principles and even his family vacations by the numbers. (Maureen Dowd, Addiction to Addition, The New York Times, April 3, 2002)

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 9

Assignment Example It also involves sharing vision and the direction making it a mutual learning process for both the manager and the delegate; thus, it is a powerful employee empowerment tool. Delegation is a proper skill for supervisors at different levels since it involves working with the employees to establish goals by giving the substantial freedom on how such goals should be realized (Jha, 2004; Pratt, 1997; Elsig, 2011). Delegation is often different formwork directing since it does not involve telling the employee how to perform a specific task. In delegation, the employee decides the manner in which to perform specific task and this gives him freedom to perform his best, which can also be useful in gauging his abilities. This makes the employees fells important since he feels involved in the management and decision making of the company and this can be good learning tool for employees to improve their skills. Delegation can also be a challenge to employers since it involves giving control and confidence to the ability of others without knowing whether they will mess or perform well with the task entrusted with them. Delegation helps managers to free up a good time and to engage in other useful management activities. This helps the manager to reduce his workload so that he can engage in other areas for faster business process. Delegation is also important in fostering good relationship between the manager and the subordinate a condition necessary effective production process (Donado et al, 2008). This gives the subordinates the room and space to explore their talents thus flourishing their abilities making them feel important in return. With such trust upon the employees, they feel satisfied with their jobs and in turn increase the productivity of the company. The monotony broken through delegation is very important for skills improvement by the subordinates so that they can explore other fields in search for new talents and skills (Mitchelle, 2000). However, despite the se numerous benefits of delegation, the scholars have not focused on the negative effects of delegation in the management. Such minor negative effects can also have a significant effect to the management and profitability of an organization should be known. This may be due to lack of ideas on how to perform the task delegated and negative attitude of the employee (Sengul et al, 2004) Research question To explore the negative effects of delegation of duties to the subordinates To determine the extent in which the management delegate duties Methodology Qualitative research design will be employed to search for valuable information that will be able to explain the negative consequences of delegation of duties. The research design will be focused on the negative consequences, which rise form delegation of duties to the subordinate especially in the company set up. I will design a questionnaire, which will be designed in a manner to address the research questions. The sampling technique will be closed and open-ended questionnaires, which will be carefully designed according to the research objectives. This will enable us obtain a variety of responses form respondents form different levels of management. The study will be focused on workers and managers who are involved in delegation process in their day-to-day activities. The study will focus on 500 company workers form five different companies in different regions in order to come up with a representative sample necessary for this study.