Monday, August 24, 2020

Struggling with Death in The Epic of Gilgamesh Essay -- Papers Gilgame

Battling with Death in The Epic of Gilgamesh In the ?Epic of Gilgamesh,? Gilgamesh manages an issue that about decimated him. He looked for after eternality so much that he put his own life on the edge. Hundreds of years after the fact, this mission joins our cutting edge, quick paced culture with the remote and distinctive culture of Gilgamesh. Humankind presently can't seem to locate the mystery of relinquishing the possibility of everlasting life. Numerous individuals today clutch the subject of everlasting status since they discover it so hard to bid farewell to a friend or family member. Setting blossoms on graves is a mainstream approach to recall the perished. Indeed, even a very long time after the individual has passed on, the relatives companions despite everything go to the gravesite to think back. Individuals think that its hard to acknowledge the way that they will never observe somebody again. They need to accept that the individual is still there. Gilgamesh had a similar issue. He made the excursion searching for his companion. He couldn?t manage the way that Enkidu had kicked the bucket. He needed him to live until the end of time. Gilgamesh even went the extent that nearly giving up his life to discover him...

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Individualistic Culture in USA and the China Collectivistic Culture Essay

Individualistic Culture in USA and the China Collectivistic Culture - Essay Example In return, such people are ensured security and this is basically the inspirational factor in this framework. The paper will inspect the United States and China regarding individualistic or collectivistic societies. So as to learn whether the US is an individualistic culture, it is basic to acclimate oneself with the attributes interchangeable with the individualistic culture. In such a culture, individuals regularly relate to their own objectives and can likewise be considered as narcissistic. Also, such individuals convey exceptionally. In individualistic societies, correspondence frameworks once in a while make contrasts between out-gathering and in bunch correspondence. Thus, their methods for correspondence are likewise particular to this turn of events. A great many people who originate from individualistic societies will in general favor utilizing immediate and clear philosophies in imparting. This implies one isn't probably going to discover them shrinking away from the real issue. (Hofstede, 1993) Achievement is a shared objective in individualistic societies. Normally, such people invest wholeheartedly in private riches or great job positions. It is generally basic to discover such individuals attempting to get up the company pecking order. Such people may not think much about what or who they need to kill so as to make it to the top. Other than these, these societies are typically attached to making business relationship that will profit them by and by. Typically associations are made so as to help one' odds of making it for example they are all around determined. This likewise implies such societies once in a while focus on the shared worth that can come out of having a business relationship with someone else and give more consideration to what that business relationship can accomplish for them. In individualistic societies, it is likewise normal to find that workers discovered there are for the most part keen on ensuring their inclinations. This is the motivation behind why claims and suits recorded against one's managers are more typical in individualistic social orders than in collectivistic ones. Additionally, representatives in these societies are ordinarily expected to take care about their own advantages as opposed to paying special mind to the interests of others. (Chen, Meindl and Hunt, 2001) It ought to likewise be noticed that this culture manages issues in various manners to their collectivistic partners. Most individualistic individuals worry about how they can change their surroundings to suit their conditions. This is a similar methodology in critical thinking; they generally consider how different objectives around them can be moved to oblige their requirements. The United States was positioned as the nation with the most elevated pace of independence on the planet. Hofstede directed tests where he needed to consider the degree of community and independence in separate nations. These were his discoveries on social measurements; PD= Power separation, ID = Individualism, MA = Masculinity, UA = Uncertainty Avoidance, LT = Long Term Orientation, H= top third, L = Bottom third, M = Medium third Nation PD ID Mama UA LT USA 40L 91H 62H 46L 29L China 80H 20L 50M 60 118 Source: Hofstede, p 91, 1993 Therefore, individuals from the last nation are probably going to radiate from the collectivistic as opposed to the individualistic way of thinking. Numerous pioneers in the American culture have demonstrated individualistic propensities now and again with some of them commenting that society

Monday, July 20, 2020

Franklins Informative Writings

Franklins Informative Writings The Impact of Franklins Informative Writings Home›Informative Posts›The Impact of Franklins Informative Writings Informative PostsIntroduction Benjamin Franklin is one of the most widely acclaimed and popular person in the American history. His undeniable charm and practical wit make him endearing. He was very committed, intelligent, and realistic to the middle-class virtues industry and thrift that make him commendable. He became the epitome of the first America to most people and thus referred to as one of the founding fathers of America. He was a great author and he came up with many pieces of writings addressing different important issues. Some of his pieces that are discussed in this paper include the remarks concerning the savages of North America, the rules by which a great empire may be reduced to a small one and lastly, information to those who would remove to America. However, the ultimate aim of this paper is to explain the pieces above in detail that any person may u nderstand them easily.Remarks concerning the Savages of North AmericaSavages refer to the manners portrayed by different nations concerning the perfection of civility. Different nations have different savages because each people have their own manners that differ from other people in other nations. For example, there are no polite people who do not have some shreds of rudeness or no people so rude that they do not have rules of politeness. The Indian men when they are young they serve as hunters and worriers. When they get old, they become councilors and this made them council of sagas. This means that no officers, no prisons to reinforce obedience or inflict punishment. Therefore, their main study is about oratory where the best speaker is the most influence (Franklin, p12). Indian women on the other hand dress the food, until the ground, nurse and bring up children after which they preserve and hand them down to posterity the public transactions’ memory.These basic actions of me n and women are accounted natural and honorable because they have minimal artificial wants as well as a lot of leisure time for improvement through conversion. However, in America the manners are very different as compared to the Indians. The American see it as being slavish and base and the learning that is highly treasured by Americans is taken to be frivolous and useless (Walter, p18). This was proved during the anno 1744 Lancaster treaty between Virginia government and 6 nations. The aim of the meeting was to settle the principal business deal among them. When all was settled, the Virginia commissioners explained to Indians that there was a college called Williamsburg that was willing to fund Indian youth be educated as well as the youths of the 5 nations.The Indian leader went on to say that there are some of their young men who were brought up at the Northern Province colleges where they were instructed in all sciences. After the course, the youths became ignorant of their own means of living, unable to withstand cold or hunger, unable to take a deer or kill an enemy, unfit for hunters, warriors, or councilors. In general, they were good for nothing and therefore they refused the offer (Houston, p31). They also suggested that they did not refuse the offer with bad heart and to show their gratitude, they were also ready to take good care of the young men of Virginia, instruct them, educate them and make men out of them. He goes on to talk about the politeness of the savages in their conversation, which do not allow them to deny the truth, and it helps them avoid disputes. The only problem is that you can never know their minds when you talk to them as they listen with patience and at last, they give the token of assent and approbation. You may think that you convinced them but that is not the case, it is pure civility.Benjamin goes on to give other examples showing the civility of the Indians. He gave the example of the missionaries who tried to convert t hem to Christianity and the Swedish minister who gave them historical facts about the principals of their religion (Franklin, p33). Instead of accepting what the Suedish minister told them, they appreciated and told of some of their historical facts. He goes on to say that when they visit the towns of whites; most people wish to see them, gaze at them and incommode them at their desired privacy. They normally attend meetings in their nation, which they call good teaching meetings. Benjamin once attended such a meeting when he visited his friend Hanson and he moved out when he became suspicious that they were talking about him and his beaver business. He goes on to tell how a foreign person is given a warm welcome with the whites, fed and provided with luxury sleeping place and in return, he gives nothing. When the same happens with the Indians, they will normally ask you for money and if you do not have, then you will be treated like a dog by being abused a stupid Indian and eventua lly chased away (Gary, p57). These I what they call good manners that they usually learn in their good manners meetings that is the vice versa of what the whites do as they were instructed by their mothers while young.The Tone used this pieceIn Remarks concerning the savages of north America, the tones that were employed by Franklin are technical, speculative and humanistic tones. the point that Franklin drove home using these tones is that the Indians had different behaviors and manners that made them reject the gospel and all the news about Christ that they were informed first by the missionaries and then by the Swedish minister. Franklin had grown up a Puritan and became a great supporter of the evangelical movement as he embraced the radical notion of egalitarian democracy. Franklin was a great evangelical advocate together with Whitefield and they fought hard to gain the religious freedom (Horne, p78). They claimed the liberty of conscience to be unchallengeable right of every rational creature. All this time, they employed the corrective and motivating tones to inform people that they had lost and that they should turn back to Christ. In the piece, he winded up by saying that the Indians had a poor civility as compared to the perfect civility by Americans. He meant that the Americans were far off in gospel as compared to the Indians who were nil and were still rejecting it because of their much faith in their cultures and traditions. This is absolutely different to what the ministers and evangelists of today do who only use the motivating and encouraging tones to gain favor from people that their churches may be full.Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small OneBenjamin Franklin wrote this piece to address all the Ministers who had extensive Dominions to manage where the greatness gave them trouble to govern as the affairs’ multicity leaves no fiddling time. The rules he gave out are as follows. To begin with, he said that a great empire is like a cake that could easily diminish at the edges. Thus, he urged them to focus on their remotest provinces where they could get rid of them in that order. Secondly, he said that there was high possibility of separating the provinces and taking special care of them as the mother country ignores them thus, they do not enjoy the same privileges and rights. They also have severe laws governing them (Cuizon P45). Thirdly, he talked of how the settlers acquired, purchased, or conquered the remote provinces without the Mother country’s aid. He went on to state that incorporation of these remote provinces was a privilege to the mother country as it increases its citizen’s number that in turn increase war strength, her commerce by the growing manufacturers demand, increase of naval power. Thus, it was a privilege to embrace the remotest provinces.Fourthly, however peaceably the colonies have delivered to the country’s government, responded well to the country’s interest, and pa tiently borne their lamentations, the country is supposed to predispose to revolt and treat them accordingly. Fifthly, the remote provinces should have judges and a governor to represent the royal person as well as executing the delegated office and authority parts everywhere (Hart and Leininger, p47). This is because, even the ministers are aware that the government’s strength depends on the opinions of the people. However, the selection of such people should be done carefully because these people may turn against the head of state. The best people to be selected are the prodigals who have ruined their fortunes or the stockjobbers. Sixth, confirmation of the impression can be done by striking deeper the suitor who comes with complaints of Mal-administration, oppression or injustice. Punish them with long delay, big expense and a final judgment that favors the oppressor. Another rule is that when such governors have crammed their coffers and made themselves so hateful to the peopl e that they cannot stay with safety any longer to their persons, remember and award them with pensions.Besides, when in war your colonies should be able to vie in liberal aids of men and money against the common enemy. In addition, when laying the taxes, never look upon the heavy burdens that the remote people already go through when doing things like defending their own frontiers, making new roads, supporting their provincial governments, building bridges, churches and other public edifices. Next is that the people may comfort themselves by saying that although they have no property, they have constitutional liberty to defend, both of person and of conscience (Jay, p67). Another rule is making the tax odious by misapplying the produce of it. Besides, you should apprehend the governors and judges who have the satisfaction and support from the people of any province. Urge them to continue treating people kindly   as well as doing them justice. Moreover, you should order harassment an d continuous dissolutions to the parliament of your provinces that dares to claim or complain of your administration. Be able to convert the brave and honest navy officers into pimping, tidewaiters and colony officers of the customs.Other rules that Benjamin Franklin gave out include; never believing in discontents that you are told in your colonies, assume they are general thus never think of applying any remedy or of changing an offensive measure (Franklin, p78). Let nothing offend you, even when the rival nations rejoice at the prospects of your disunion with the provinces, just ignore them and move on to settle all the challenging aspects.The Tone used in this pieceThe tones employed in this piece are ethical, incendiary and motivating tones where he employed a guiding style to all the governing ministers. He talked about the basic principles that need to be followed by the ministers who governed large dominions (Houston, p45). The piece was very effective and motivating in the politics of America since many dominions faced challenges that they could never overcome easily. Majority of the rulers in the US adapted the rules and they were all successful. Therefore, his guidelines and principles were very effective and they still apply even today. However, the politicians of today are very different in that they normally employ humorous and the laudatory tones to win the hearts of the citizens especially during campaign periods. They therefore employ the soft and humble tones to convince the citizens to vote for them.Information to those who would remove to AmericaIn 1784, Benjamin Franklin wrote another pamphlet titled information to those who would remove to America. This informative essay was printed out to the European people to make clear the rumors that spread about America being a land of dreams and fantasy. He clearly outlined what was important and needed by the Americans and what was not needed and not welcomed there. The essay puts clear the way th e American culture is portrayed and what they do greatly that is opposed by the Europeans. A chord within Franklin was struck by four main rumors. This made him furious and said enough is enough, the false accusations must end, and this is where this informative essay came into play (Thomas, p75). The rumors are as follows.To begin with, the rumor stated that the American people were rich and possessed a lot of properties and materials but they were ignorant. That was a false statement and Franklin proves it wrong by mentioning the America’s nine colleges or universities that have spread throughout the country. This was different from the four colleges that were located in New England. The second rumor was to admit that America was not in need of the people who wrote literature and artist and that if they move over they would not be held up on pedestal. Franklin went ahead to stress the need of work and set a good example to the others. He proved to them that he could be alone by his works were remarkable even in comparison to other European artist and literature writers. His writings were able to convince most people that indeed, what they said about America was not true.The Tone employedIn information to those who will remove to America, the tone that was employed by Franklin was very hard and correcting. All the rumors that had spread that was false accusation about America made Franklin very furious thus he employed the hard tone to show people that he was indeed depressed of what they talked about America. He then used the acerbic, vitriolic and corrective tones to put it clear to them on what they should know about America. He really made the Europeans understand that they were mistaking America. This is different from what most ministers and evangelists do today. They normally use the soft, motivating and convincing tones that they may gain favor from majority of people. It is clear that most of them work on filling the churches so that they may gain a lot in turn. The politicians on the other hand also employ the soft tone especially when the elections are near so that they may be voted back. No one of them has ever employed the harsh and correcting tone. Their focus is on money and not correcting people on certain issues.ConclusionMany people thought that Benjamin’s presence in Britain could mark the beginning of good relationship between America and Britain but unfortunately that was not the case, the British people did some sorts of things that disappointed Franklin and he responded to them through informative writing of pieces of essays. Remarks concerning the savages of North America talk about the behaviors and manners of Indians their response to certain things like advice, teachings, and other things (Franklin, p32). In rules by which a great empire can be reduced to small one, there are the basic principles that Benjamin wrote to address the ministers who had extensive dominions. The information to those who would re move to America talks about the responses that Benjamin issued to the European people who talked negatively about America in the four main rumors that were heard all over Europe. His writing made some European people to change their attitudes towards America. This developed good relationship between the Americans and European people and up to date, the relationship and coordination between the two is very strong. Thus, Franklin’s works have great influence to the modern society.The tones that Franklin employed in his writings were very effective and they had great impact. The modern society ministers and politicians have very different tones in comparison to Franklin’s. they normally work on winning people’s favor rather than correcting and guiding people.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Article Review Song, Confession, and Criminality Trial...

The first article up for review, Alexander Fisher’s â€Å"Song, Confession, and Criminality: Trial Records as Sources for Popular Musical Culture in Early Modern Europe,† is extremely thorough and detailed. After a lengthy introduction, the thesis is finally stated. His goal with this article is to gain an understanding of popular music in early-modern Europe through trial records of three cases of people being accused of anti-Catholic sentiment. He lists his methodology after this, planning to comb through their individual case files which includes documents on the interrogation questions used and other tactics that were employed (i.e. torture). Fisher then gives us his plan for the conclusion, in which he says he will offer some unifying†¦show more content†¦Fisher gives us the Fragstà ¼ck as promised and the reveals to us that Schà ¤dlin was released a day after his confession due to his honesty. Fisher then dives into analysis of both text and music to gi ve us an understanding of why this song was punishable by law and why it was popular among Schà ¤dlin’s protestant peers at the time. Fisher builds his case backwards (in my opinion) but it works beautifully. First, he gives us Psalm 124 from the Bible, which was set to music by two prominent early Protestant composers, Johann Walter and Justus Jonas. Fisher draws connections in both text and technical set up between the three to give the reader an understanding of the strong political imagery employed by Schà ¤dlin. He mentions specific changes Schà ¤dlin to draw out anger in the Church, including an implication that the Catholics â€Å"clamor for his blood† (Dr. Mà ¼ller being the subject given to us in the introduction). Fisher also highlights Schà ¤dlin’s connection between local government and ancient Roman tyranny. Fisher ends this section of his article by focusing on the link between the Justus Jonas setting of the Psalm and Schà ¤dlin’s alt ered version, citing this as a reason for its popularity among dissenting Protestants at the time and as a reason the local governments took such offense to the song. Next, Fisher moves on to The Case of Jonas Losch. He starts out with a little historical background on Losch, including the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Walter Whitman Essay - 2069 Words

All Alone nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Walter Whitman was an American poet of the 1800’s. Walt was arguably one of America’s influential and innovative poets of his time. Whitman began work as a printer and journalist in the New York City area. He wrote articles on politics, civics, and the arts. During the Civil War, Whitman was a volunteer assistant in the military hospitals in Washington, D.C. After the war, he worked in several government departments until he suffered a stroke in 1873. He spent the rest of his life in Camden, N.J., where he continues to write poems and articles. Leaves of Grass, a book of poems Whitman began in 1848 was so unusual at the time that no publisher would publish it. In 1855, he published it†¦show more content†¦It is difficult to challenge the purity and spirituality of the feelings Whitman and Doyle had for each other. Many cant figure out what was between them. â€Å"There can be no doubt that these feelings transcend those usual to friends or companions of the same sex† (Allen 25). Whitman was a homosexual and many of his poems relate to manly love. â€Å"To the serious reader of Calamus, the ‘manly love’ that recurs both as a term and as an idea is of such genuine poetic complexity as to render it a good deal more than ‘abnormal’ and considerably less than ‘deficient’†(Canby 124). The poems also show the friendship of men and women through his life.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Calamus is a section that has changed along with the revisions of the book. The poems came and gone with how Walt felt each poem held up in each section. â€Å" No section in Leaves of Grass has received so much close attention and been the center of so much discussion and controversy as Calamus† (Bliss 288). Whitman’s own saintlike, spiritual life shows as proof that the poems could not be unwholesome. â€Å"William Sloane Kennedy calls Calamus, â€Å"Whitman’s beautiful democratic poems of friendship† (Bliss 288). The purity, innocence, and spirituality of the Calamus concept cannot be missed. The idea in not original with Whitman. As he states, â€Å" the Calamus idea was expressed by all mankind’s saviors and has frequently beenShow MoreRelatedWalter Whitman1003 Words   |  5 PagesWalter Whitman â€Å"I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey-work of the stars† (Whitman 41). Walter Whitman, also known as Walt Whitman, was born on May 31, 1819, in Long Island, New York, to Walter Whitman and Louisa Van Velsor Whitman. When he was twelve, Walt and his family settled in Brooklyn, up to then his family had lived in a dozen different places (Conarroe 4). Walt worked in many different positions; to some he was even viewed as a drifter. 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The Just Not Caring Essay Free Essays

An example of violence against women Imagine the horror of being forcefully tied down, drenching In kerosene oil and being set on fire alive. It would not be a surprise If the mere thought of It Is already disturbing to you. How much more so would it be that this bitter fate is truly faced by many married women in India not at the hands of some psychos or strangers, but by their own so-called beloved husbands and or in-laws? A young woman is either being burnt alive, beaten to death or being forced to commit suicide at someplace in India, almost every four hours for not being able to provide the demand of dowries. We will write a custom essay sample on The Just Not Caring Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Stone) The word dowry In the ordinary sense means properties or resources that are given to the bridegroom and his family at the time of marriage from the bride’s family for accepting her to their home permanently. Dowry is, therefore, a compensatory payment to the family which agrees to shelter her hypothetically for the rest of her life. (Madam). â€Å"The nature of property may be movable or immovable. Movable property generally consists of cash, clothes, furniture, ornaments, cycle or car and many other articles and Immovable property Includes land, house and shop or actors, etc. â€Å"(Hookah, 3) Historically, the dowry was referred as gift given voluntarily and it was restricted only to the Brahmins as the symbol of the highest caste. Today the dowry often refers to expensive material objects demand by the bridegroom’s family as opposed to voluntarily given and it is unfortunately becoming customary across many deferent castes and social groups. Stone) Although dowry is possibly the single largest cause of bride burning as well as other forms of domestic violence against women; the Inequality between genders, an Increase In consumerism and he growing greed of balancing the social status with material objects also serves to be the motivations in committing the crime of bride burning. Oil) In India, a daughter is often neither valued nor welcomed by her biological family d ue to the severe financial weight of the dowry expectation. In fact, girls are rejected prior to their birth. Pillar, indicates that detection of a fetus using amniocentesis test have escalated throughout the country and the fetus carrying XX chromosomes are often aborted because the ultimate financial burden of a woman makes a female infant highly unwanted. Rude) The male preference over female Is also due to the custom of husband’s family taking in the bride and thus daughters are taken as temporary visitors in their own home. Even in the matter of upbringing, son’s happiness and success are considered more important because in return sons bear the responsibility of supporting their parents at the time of old age. Over time, this unequal treatment and abandonment faced by many women from a very young age forces them to view themselves as a minority which then ultimately shatters their confidence and self-worthiness into pieces. This explains why many newly-wed women prefer to stay mute even when they experience brutality or dowry -related violence since they fear or lack the confidence to gear up enough courage in an alien house hold to fight back or report the violence when the dowry obligations are unmet. According to Rude, some even choose suicide as an escape from the brutality of their situation and to spare their parents the humiliation of not being able to India, a total of 2. 276 female suicides due to dowry disputes were reported in 2006 that is six a day on an average, while the figure was 2,305 in 2005. On an average India loses one India woman every four hours over a dowry dispute, as per official data, despite a series of laws to empower them. (Dowry) The ongoing reality of dowry- related violence is an example of what can happen when women are treated as property. Hookah points out homicidal burning to be a common method used to murder a wife by the husband and in-law in order to bring forth excuses to explain the incident. The husband or in-law often reports the incident to the police as â€Å"a stove burst†, an accidental burn that took place while the woman was cooking on a rimes stove. Or the report may state that my wife’s dress usually it’s a traditionally dress called â€Å"share† caught on fire while she was cooking on a wood burning stove. In case, if the husband or in-law fails to prove the event based upon the evidence, they simply report the death as being one of the suicides. A familiar claim is that the victim burnt herself to death by pouring paraffin oil on her clothes and body and setting herself alight. † (Dowry) Due to lack of evidence, the guilty husband and in-law often escapes even after committing atrocious crimes and they are soon in the arraign business again looking for a new bride with perhaps an even handsomer dowry. Stone) These shocking made-up incidents are linked to the custom of the dowry system that has turned the very concept of marriage–a pure attachment between a husband and a wife–into a transaction, with no value placed whatsoever on the bride or the relationship of the husband and wife. â€Å"For this man or his family woman becomes the ticket to his shortcut richness through the system of dowry. † The groom side of the family often uses the prospect of a sonâ⠂¬â„¢s marriage to full fill all the series in terms of articles that they cannot afford on their own. Women are increasingly seen as commodities and are vulnerable to being treated as replaceable objects because when the flow of dowry ends, they are in a shaky position that can lead to disapproval, cruelty, and finally, dowry-murder. â€Å"The driving force behind this process is the growth of the cash-based economy, which has commercialese dowry and further lowered the status of women despite new laws and educational opportunities designed to assist them. Although a dowry system is illegal in India, it entities to flourish putting lives of many women in danger simply because there is no limitation to human greed. Nowadays dowry is regarded, by those who demand it, as reflection of the social status of the bridegroom’s family.. Thus, the more eligible the bridegroom is in terms of social standing, the wealth, the educational and career- related achievements, and so forth the larger the dowry that his family has the right to demand and receive. These marriages built upon greed–and not upon love, as it should be–brings only disaster in which only women face. The desire for more never ends once the person has been bitten by dowry bite and as a result when the bride’s family cannot pay the amount commanded by the in-laws, the bride is often then burned alive as a consequence. Furthermore, the emergence of consumerism has made it attractive for prospective bridegrooms and their families to use the dowry as a means of enriching themselves at the time of marriage by demanding expensive presents from the parents of the prospective bride. The desire for continuing to benefit materially from the parents of the bride can take the form of pressuring the parents of young women do not hesitate to the evil custom of dowry. Since it has become very problematic for family with a daughter who is highly educated to find an eligible educated groom due to the pressure that a girl is required to marry a husband above her in terms of education. And it is considered a shameful act to marry a man with a less education. Thus, the daughters’ parents are ready to pay a handsome amount of dowry. Geraldine Forbes, and other scholars also point out that, in relatively recent times, rising consumerism and the increasing trend to equate social status with material objects has made it attractive for prospective bridegrooms ND their families to use the dowry as a means of enriching themselves at the time of marriage by demanding expensive presents from the parents of the prospective bride. The desire for continuing to benefit materially from the parents of the bride can take the form of pressuring the bride and her family for more dowries even after marriage. (G. Forbes) To halt the practice of bride burning, a change in the perception of women’s status is essential. It can be brought about by increase in the education and the equal opportunities for women. The hard earned money saved up or dowries should rather be invested in the betterment of their daughters’ future so that they can become and remain economically independent from their husbands or their natal families. In addition shelter homes should be constructed for victims of dowry-related violence since many women are dependent to their husbands and have no place to go. Further more, the media should use it’ power to publicize the problems caused by dowry and dowry-related crimes. I. E. Asia Intel L. 277 (2008) Dowry Deaths (bride burning) in India and Abutment of Suicide: A Socio-Legal Appraisal; Madman, Unaligned How to cite The Just Not Caring Essay, Essays

Sunday, April 26, 2020

women in egypt Essay Example For Students

women in egypt Essay Women in the Hellenistic world Women in the Hellenistic World Womens lives were improved and expanded in the Hellenistic age more so than at any other time prior Greek history. Papyri from Egypt and Coele-Syria have led to the discovery of documents on marriage contracts, inscriptions of philanthropy, and the daily lives of the women in that period. The Hellenistic woman changed in many ways. She became more educated, more cultured, and she received domestic freedom and her new legal and occupational advancements and a whole other myriad of news liberations. The ideal of the Classical obedient Greek wife was turned upside down. We will write a custom essay on women in egypt specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now She no longer had to be escorted to places outside her home and to issue legal documents. She also could now have contracts drawn up to secure her position in a marriage contracts that would cover adultery and her right to divorce. Before the Hellenistic age Greek wives were looked down upon. They were seen as a means to produce kin, take care of the domestic duties, and be subordinate to their husbands. In a speech by King Eteocles in 467 BCE to some Theban women who have thrown themselves to his feet in a desperate attempt to lift his besiegement of Thebes, he says: I ask you, you intolerable creatures, if you think that your behavior will be helpful to the state and will bring salvation, or support the army that is besieged, if you fall on the statues of the gods who protect the state, and wail and scream to the disgust of sensible people? (Lefkowitz and Fant, 28) He uses the term intolerable creatures to characterize these women. He here practices the common Greco-chauvinistic idea of male dominance over female. He even goes as far as reducing them to a less than human state by using the word creatures. He goes on to say to the Thebans: I would not choose to live with the female sex either in bad times nor during a welcome peace The outside is a mans concern a woman should not consider it; she should stay inside and not cause damage. Have you heard me or not? Or am I talking to a deaf woman? (Lefkowitz and Fant, 28) This was furthered by Euripides in the Worthlessness of Women, 428 BCE. Euripides went beyond Eteocles. He said: I hate clever women. I dont want a woman in my house thinking more than a woman ought to think (Lefkowitz and Fant, 29). Euripides here degrades women as was the custom of Greek men of that time. Too often did men speak of these ideals and this perpetuated the polarization of male to female relationships But not all women were demonized. On an epitaph there is inscribed: This dust hides Archedice, daughter of Hippias, the most important man in Greece in his day. But though her father, husband, brothers, and children were tyrants, her mind was never carried away into arrogance. (Lefkowitz and Fant, 16) This inscription from the 5th century BCE shows how some women were remembered for good deeds done and not just their duties as homemakers. It also recognized the humane side of the Classical Greek woman. Philosophers and philosophies were developed in the Hellenistic period that allowed women to join schools of thought that expanded their freedom. Education became available for an array of Greek women in this time. A little before the Hellenistic age came to be, the ideas of the loosening of social constructs for women were taking place that led to the foundation of other schools of thought such as that of Epicureanism and Cynicism. But these ideas came from a couple of the Classical philosophers. One example of this is a discussion between Plato and Glaucon. The topic of interest to these men was that of the education of women. The point that was made was that since there are only a couple of distinctions between men and women, i.e. physical attributes and things like pot making and bread making although really only social constructs that forced women to be engaged in these services day in and day out that would have made them better then men at those said duties that men arent superior to women on the intellectual plane and better able to perform those duties therein. They thought primarily because women, with the same education as men, can perform and execute those tasks just as proficiently as men can. But in contrast to this is Platos student Aristotle. Who wrote why freedmen (Greek citizens) should rule slaves. He stated: The freeman rules over the slave after another manner that in which the male rules over the female, or the man over the child; although the parts of the soul are present in all of them, they are present in different degrees. For the slave has no deliberative faculty to all; the woman has, but it is without authority, and the child has, but it is immature. (Lefkowitz and Fant, 39) Here he shows that women have the ability to reason and think but that they lack the authority that the man does. This leaves her out of making decisions such as that of a man would make outside the house; being in the polis or in an army. But later, those two schools of thought believed that women did have those faculties and the authority and inducted them into their schools Epicureanism and Cynicism. Both of these schools of thought were founded in or about the Hellenistic period but both taking root and expanding their thoughts throughout the Hellenistic world therein at the least. One famous female Cynic was one by the name of Hipparchia, the wife of Crates. Who appeared in public and went to dinner parties, and was proud to have spent time in education rather than working at the loom. (Pomeroy, 132) She stood out among her peers as an independent woman without the need for a chaperone when one was required to have a chaperone. A Classical Greek institution that required Greek women to have at all times when they leave the house a male escort presumably a family member. .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .postImageUrl , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:hover , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:visited , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:active { border:0!important; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:active , .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9 .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1287a73eefd847673a1310cf8154e9a9:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Genocide in East Timor Essay Lefkowitz and Fant touch on this a little more. They site an example of papyri that was discovered that gave a short narrative of two women who go out without escorts. Gorgo, a housewife who visits her friend Praxinoa on the day of the festival of Adonis in Alexandria in the 3rd century BCE makes small talk before going to the house of the king, rich Ptolemy. Theyre excited because the queen has done a beautiful job of decorating the palace a story about seemingly nothing. But really of common life and housewives being allowed out of the domestic sphere and able to visit their friends and go to public places without escorts. Another improvement in the lives of Hellenistic women that they enjoyed was that of a heightened amount of legal rights. One of these and most prominent is that of the right for women to not need an escort or chaperone to places or in legal matters. A guardian was required in the legal field when a Greek woman made a public declaration or incurred a contractual obligation concerning persons or property. This is most notable in the distinction between the women in mainland Greece and those of Egypt. In the Hellenized world women were now allowed to leave the house and do the projects that the slaves would do such as buying food and other commodities. But womens emancipation in the legal realm reached further than this. Women now were able to construct marriage contracts that ensured a myriad of legal binding conditions. One case is that of a marriage contract between a man and a women in Egypt Heraclides of Temnos and Demetria, respectively that ensured that if Heraclides brings home another woman or begets a child with another woman or indulges in fraudulent machinations against Demetria and she proves it in front of three men that they both know and have picked he shall have to return the dowry of 1000 drachmas and pay another 1000 drachmas in fines of his own to her. Also, this contract was legally binding anywhere that those two shall have moved. This means that because of the time where travel among the Hellenistic kingdoms was common practice and each place had its own laws contracts needed to constructed as to be able to circulate in and out of each kingdom. In a rare case a woman was awarded a position as a magistrate. A one Phile of Priene. She became the first woman to construct a reservoir and an aqueduct. Her position as a magistrate was awarded to her probably because she contributed to the public works out of her private funds. But this shows that women were capable to function on a legal level, as was the case here. The next new rights of women in this period come from the arena of the new found domestic and civic freedoms. This is the new institution of educating women which I have already touched upon in the discussion between Plato and Glaucon. But I shall elaborate in more detail. A couple of examples of womens literacy come from two places; poetry and the ability to sign ones own marriage contract. We know of female poets in Classical Greece but now in Egypt with the new amounts of papyri womens works remained intact as proof of their literacy. But the important part is that of women being able to sign their marriage contracts. Education became available to women in this period as well. Hipparchia, one of the first female Cynical philosophers even received an education based on the curriculum of a Greek boy. She received an education in rudimentary mathematics, music, literature, and of physical education. The aspect of women even being allowed to be involved in physical education is a radically new ideal. This because Athletics were an essential part of the male curriculum that was opened to women in the Hellenistic period precisely because the Classical ideal no longer prevailed.(Pomeroy, 137) This now allowed women to enter gymnasiums and exercise nude in the close proximity to men although this happened quite rarely. The next aspect of the liberation of Hellenistic women is that of the strength and cleverness of the royal women. Three of these women come to the table when considering who they are; Alexanders mother, Bernice II and Cleopatra VII. All three of these women used their cunning and influence to get what they wanted. With Alexanders mother she had to compete with other women to get her son into position to take the throne after Philip IIs death. As Pomeroy put it: Many Macedonian kings indulged in both formal and informal polygamy, and because they often chose not to confer most-favored status on one of their wives thereby making clear as well which of their sons was the designated successor to the throne they fostered a climate of intrigue and struggle for power within their courts which could end in their own death at the hands of a power-hungry mother plotting of behalf of her son. (Pomeroy, 121) This caused Alexanders mother to have to conspire against the other women in Philips court and lie and deceive the king himself to put Alexander where she wanted him. Bernice II was the wife of Ptolemy III. She exercised real political power and who left her mark on poetry and religion. She had access to a large fortune, which she spent on perfume of roses and racehorses (traditionally a male hobby). Her income was from the shipping in her city of Cyrene. She owned ships that transported grain on the Nile, which also added to her wealth. Her power came not from the trickery that she had to perform, but from her economic situation. She came to the table with wealth and didnt have to fight to be able to ensure her kin to the throne. But Cleopatra VII was the most famous. Cleopatra inherited the throne at seventeen with her brother Ptolemy XVII, then ten. Pomeroy states on Cleopatra: the phenomenon of Cleopatra must be set firmly in the context of Ptolemaic queens, shrewd, able and ambitious. .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .postImageUrl , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:hover , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:visited , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:active { border:0!important; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:active , .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0 .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u066a67235d54c00cd43da4b3c09ebfe0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Becoming Hitler Essay She was not a courtesan, an exotic plaything for Roman generals. Rather, Cleopatras liaisons with the Romans must be considered to have been, from her viewpoint, legitimate dynastic alliances with promises of the greatest possible success and profit to the queen and to Egypt. (Pomeroy, 124) She used Caesar to ensure the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt even under Roman control. She even had a son with Caesar and traveled to Rome to stay as a courtesan until his assassination. The final aspect of female Hellenized liberation was represented in their news occupations. There are four categories of these occupations; arts and literature, practical jobs, medicinal jobs and prostitution. The first of these, arts and literature involved some of the following; dancers, musicians, painters and poets. The first three showing the depth of Classical Greek arts transposing into the Hellenized world. But the latter, the poets, show the literacy of the occupational women that lived in the Hellenistic period. The next group, the practical jobs, show how women are now able to come out of the house and find applications of their capabilities in the world. Some of these jobs included; weavers, pot makers, launders, grocers and bar-maids. All that these show is an ability to prove womens ability to function outside of the domestic sphere. This contradicts the ideals of Aristotle that were stated earlier. Although most of these jobs just included an extension of their domestic duties as they were in Classical Greece, they did show an integration among the Hellenistic women into the work force of that time a distinction between those said women and those of Classical Greece. The third category of occupations among Hellenistic women is that of the medical field. While most men of that time stayed with the healing of diseases most women in the medical field were midwives and wet-nurses. They handled such applications as the functions of menstruation, childbirth, nursing and menopause. The fourth category is that of the prostitute. The distinction between primarily two types of prostitutes should be made. The first is that of the freed womans and the second is that of the exposed or enslaved womans. Pomeroy stated that one of the main reasons for why women were exposed and forced into enslaved prostitution was a result of the requirement of the family of that girl to pay a dowry to her husband. For lower class families this could have been devastating, especially if there was more than one daughter. But prostitution could be very rewarding. There were even recorded cases when prostitutes had to pay higher taxes when traveling from one country to the next. It was the case that these women had to pay more not because of moral reasons but simply because they could afford to do so. The new Greek woman the newly Hellenized liberations left her Classical Greek heritage behind. But this is so only in the new spectrum of her rights in the new world. Never did she leave her Greek heritage behind in the aspect of being Greek. She was still Greek in the ethnic sense but not in the ideal sense. She brought a whole new definition onto the women of the Hellenized world. She raged against the Classical Greek ideal of what a women should be as Aristotle saw it, a obedient women working on the domestic sphere being devoid of any intellectual prowess and cleverness and barely better than a slave. But Plato saw, as the Epicureans and the Cynics did some time later, that women were just as capable at thinking intellectually and having the faculties to compete in something like the political sphere. She also acquired a myriad of legal rights. With her literacy came an ability to sign marriage contrasts which helped secure her rights in a marriage and dull her exploitation. It also allowed her to no longer need an escort in such matters that would have been needed in Classical Greece. She could in some places have become a magistrate because of her economic status as was the case with Phile of Priene. Her education allowed to become more literate, become better founded in mathematics, have a knowledge of ancient Greek literature and even participate in the gymnasiums that allowed her to join the ranks of the educated class in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. The royal women in this time also experienced as new found power. Alexanders mother biding and successfully instituting her son into position to the throne. Bernice II found that her economic status could carry her a long way. Leaving marks on the arts and poetry especially. Cleopatra VII found that her beauty and cleverness could help to secure the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt for years. She even had a child with the famous Roman emperor Caesar. Showing her strength and intelligence in the political sphere as well. And the occupations of Greek women in this time were expanded. Now women could leave the house and pursue other jobs of interest. And at least earn an income on her own. Women in the Hellenistic age were allowed to enter all of the above fields. They became smarter, legally freer and economically stronger. But what was the real zeal that made these ideas reality? In a quote form Fantham it is made clear: In the Classical period, respectable women at least those of Athens had been able to look forward to only two journeys: the first from their fathers house to heir husbands, the next from their husbands house to the grave. But in the Hellenistic period both women and men migrated to the newly conquered territories and forged new lives for themselves in the frontier outpost of Hellenism. (Fantham, 140) A rebellion against the classic ideal of the Greek woman became inevitable.